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cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:two_part_counterpoint:fourth_order [2018/06/17 13:28] (current)
brian created
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 +====== Two-Part Counterpoint ======
 +===== Fourth Order: On Syncopation =====
 +==== Rule 23 ====
  
 +This order ((species)) of counterpoint is comprised of only two minims ((half notes)) against a semibreve (whole note)). By syncopation,​ is meant, a semibreve ((whole note)) of which the first half occurs in the unaccented part of a bar, and the other half in the accented part of the following bar. 
 +
 +{{ :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex062-1.png?​800 |}}
 +
 +{{ :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex062.mp3 | :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex062.ogg |}}
 +
 +==== Rule 24 ==== 
 +
 +Syncopation should always have a concord ((consonance)) at the unaccented part of the bar, while the accented may be either a concord ((consonance)) or a discord ((dissonance)) at pleasure. If the accented portion be a concord ((consonance)),​ the composer is at liberty to make the melody progress by degree, or by interval.
 +
 +{{ :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex063a-1.png?​600 |}}
 +
 +{{ :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex063a.mp3 | :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex063a.ogg |}}
 +
 +{{ :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex063b-1.png?​600 |}}
 +
 +{{ :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex063b.mp3 | :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex063b.ogg |}}
 +
 +If the accented portion be a discord ((dissonance)),​ the melody //must// descend by degree to a concord ((consonance)),​ and not otherwise ((The //​retardation//​ figure is prohibited.)). This is called resolving a //​suspension//​ -- as the pupil must be aware, if he has studied harmony.
 +
 +{{ :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex064-1.png?​600 |}}
 +
 +{{ :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex064.mp3 | :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex064.ogg |}}
 +
 +==== Rule 25 ====
 +
 +Discords ((dissonances)) on the accented portion must be prepared by a concord ((consonance)),​ and resolved, also, by another concord ((consonance)).
 +
 +{{ :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex065-1.png?​450 |}}
 +
 +{{ :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex065.mp3 | :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex065.ogg |}}
 +
 +In a succession of suspensions on the accented part of the bar, the note of resolution naturally becomes the consonant note of preparation to the suspension that follows it.
 +
 +{{ :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex066-1.png?​600 |}}
 +
 +{{ :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex066.mp3 | :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex066.ogg |}}
 +
 +These discords ((dissonances)) are only suspensions of the concords ((consonances));​ since by leaving out the discords ((dissonances)) in each bar of the preceding example, this progression becomes nothing other than a succession of concords ((consonances)).
 +
 +> Example 66 (suspension chain) without the suspensions
 +
 +{{ :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex067-1.png?​600 |}}
 +
 +{{ :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex067.mp3 | :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex067.ogg |}}
 +
 +It will at once be perceived, therefore, by this means, upon what concord ((consonance)) a discord ((dissonance)) should be resolved; consequently,​ it is prohibited to make a succession of seconds resolved upon the unison, or a succession of ninths resolved upon the octave.
 +
 +> **Prohibited** -- these are still parallel unisons and octaves
 +
 +{{ :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex068-1.png?​600 |}}
 +
 +{{ :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex068.mp3 | :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex068.ogg |}}
 +
 +By leaving out the discord ((dissonance)) in each bar of these examples, there will be a succession of unisons, as regards the seconds, and a succession of octaves, as regards the ninths.
 +
 +{{ :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex069-1.png?​600 |}}
 +
 +{{ :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex069.mp3 | :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex069.ogg |}}
 +
 +The same prohibition exists, when the counterpoint lies in the lower part, and when it might be believed that such successions could be employed. As a consequence of this precept, successions of discords ((dissonances)),​ such as these in the following example, must not be introduced:​--
 +
 +> **Prohibited** - these are still parallel fifths
 +
 +{{ :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex070-1.png?​600 |}}
 +
 +{{ :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex070.mp3 | :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex070.ogg |}}
 +
 +By leaving out the syncopation,​ a prohibited succession of concords ((consonances)) appears:--
 +
 +{{ :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex071-1.png?​600 |}}
 +
 +{{ :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex071.mp3 | :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex071.ogg |}}
 +
 +Without using discords ((dissonances)),​ the danger of making successive ((parallel)) octaves, as well as fifths, may be incurred:--
 +
 +> **Prohibited** - these are still parallel octaves and fifths
 +
 +{{ :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex072-1.png?​800 |}}
 +
 +{{ :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex072.mp3 | :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex072.ogg |}}
 +
 +By leaving out the syncopations,​ the false progression of the preceding example is made apparent:--
 +
 +{{ :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex073-1.png?​800 |}}
 +
 +{{ :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex073.mp3 | :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex073.ogg |}}
 +
 +It will be seen, in short, that in order to ascertain whether all the prescribed laws of this order ((species)) are fulfilled without committing a single fault, there is nothing needful but to leave out the syncopation in each bar, which affords complete proof.
 +
 +==== Rule 26 ====
 +
 +In two-part counterpoint of the present order ((species)),​ it is necessary, as much as possible, to abstain from employing the discords ((dissonances)) of the fourth and the ninth. That of the seventh is preferable to these, when the counterpoint lies in the upper part; and that of the second, when the counterpoint lies in the lower part ((The 2-3 suspension is the only valid suspension when the counterpoint is in the lower voice.)).
 +
 +==== Rule 27 ====
 +
 +The law of syncopation should be observed in each bar. If, however, this constraint render the melody not easy to be sustained at a medium pitch, and that the syncopation carries it too much above, or too much below; or if it induce similar phrases too nearly allied; or, in short, if it involve the introduction of passages too perplexing; -- then, syncopation must be deferred for one, or two bars, at most. This expedient should be employed only after all possible methods of syncopation have been tried in vain ((Summary: It is better to switch temporarily to second-species counterpoint rather than to commit an error in strict fourth species. Even so, you should switch back to fourth species as soon as possible.)).
 +
 +==== Rule 28 ====
 +
 +In this order ((species)),​ at the penultimate bar, the syncopation of the seventh should invariably be introduced, when the counterpoint lies in the upper part; and the syncopation of the second, when the counterpoint lies in the lower part.
 +
 +> Fourth-species cadence formulae
 +
 +{{ :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex074-1.png?​600 |}}
 +
 +{{ :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex074.mp3 | :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex074.ogg |}}
 +
 +==== Rule 29 ====
 +
 +As observed in second-species counterpoint,​ so in the order ((species)) now under discussion, a half rest at the first bar may be employed, before commencing the counterpoint.
 +
 +> Two completed examples of fourth-species counterpoint
 +
 +{{ :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex075a-1.png?​800 |}}
 +
 +{{ :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex075a.mp3 | :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex075a.ogg |}}
 +
 +{{ :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex075b-1.png?​800 |}}
 +
 +{{ :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex075b.mp3 | :​cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue:​ex075b.ogg |}}
  • cherubini_counterpoint_and_fugue/two_part_counterpoint/fourth_order.txt
  • Last modified: 2018/06/17 13:28
  • by brian